Marey, Étienne-Jules

(1830-1904)
   Film pioneer. Étienne-Jules Marey was a French physiologist, member of the Academy of Medecine, and a professor at the Collège de France. Marey developed several important devices for the study of human physiology, including a device to register pulse and blood pressure. His primary interest, however, was in developing the means to use photography to capture and represent movement. He developed several techniques and inventions that would pave the way for the invention of the film camera. One of Marey's contributions was his "tambour," a kind of pressure sensor that could be used to register movement. Marey attached the device to the hoofs of a horse to register the movement of the hooves. In so doing, he discovered that all representations of a horse in motion made up to that time were incorrect. This discovery led William Muybridge to develop his zoopraxiscope in order to be able to accurately photograph and represent a horse's movement. Marey applied his technology to a motion-sensing suit that he used to capture human motion.
   Marey was, in turn, inspired by Muybridge to develop a way to capture movement in a single frame. He developed a technique for exposing multiple images on the same rotating plate through the use of a slotted shutter. This allowed for the photographic image to represent the photographed movement. He called these images chronophotographes. He developed a photographic gun in 1882 with a rotating photographic plate. The gun enabled the user to rapidly photograph a moving object with a quick succession of images. This allowed for the photography of the movement of birds, something that had not previously been possible. In 1887, he developed a rudimentary film camera using George Eastman's recently developed silver bromide film. This camera was a direct predecessor to Auguste and Louis Lumière's cinématographe. A significant difference between Marey's invention and that of the Lumières is that Marey's device did not use transparent film and the film was not notched. He was not, therefore, able to accurately capture continuous motion because of an unresolved issue with continuous feed of the film and with the continuity of the time of exposure and the distance between images. In 1894, Marey also invented a slow-motion camera.
   Historical Dictionary of French Cinema by Dayna Oscherwitz & Mary Ellen Higgins

Guide to cinema. . 2011.

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  • Marey, Étienne-Jules — (1830 1904)    Film pioneer. Étienne Jules Marey was a French physiologist, member of the Academy of Medecine, and a professor at the Collège de France. Marey developed several important devices for the study of human physiology, including a… …   Historical Dictionary of French Cinema

  • Marey, Etienne-Jules — SUBJECT AREA: Medical technology, Photography, film and optics [br] b. 5 March 1830 Beaune, France d. 15 May 1904 Paris, France [br] French physiologist and pioneer of chronophotography. [br] At the age of 19 Marey went to Paris to study medicine …   Biographical history of technology

  • Marey, Étienne-Jules — ▪ French physiologist born March 5, 1830, Beaune, Fr. died May 15, 1904, Paris  French physiologist who invented the sphygmograph, an instrument for recording graphically the features of the pulse and variations in blood pressure. His basic… …   Universalium

  • Marey, Étienne-Jules — ► (1830 1904) Fisiólogo francés. Inventó aparatos para el estudio de fenómenos fisiológicos …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Etienne-Jules Marey — Étienne Jules Marey (um 1850) Étienne Jules Marey (* 5. März 1830 in Beaune, Côte d Or, Frankreich; † 15. Mai 1904 in Paris) war ein französischer Physiologe und Erfinder …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Etienne Jules Marey — Étienne Jules Marey (um 1850) Étienne Jules Marey (* 5. März 1830 in Beaune, Côte d Or, Frankreich; † 15. Mai 1904 in Paris) war ein französischer Physiologe und Erfinder …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Etienne-Jules Marey — Étienne Jules Marey Étienne Jules Marey vers 1850 Étienne Jules Marey, né à Beaune le 5 mars 1830 et mort à Paris le 15 mai 1904, est un physiologiste français. Considéré à son époque comme un touche à tout atypique, il est un pionnier de la… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Etienne Jules Marey — Étienne Jules Marey Étienne Jules Marey vers 1850 Étienne Jules Marey, né à Beaune le 5 mars 1830 et mort à Paris le 15 mai 1904, est un physiologiste français. Considéré à son époque comme un touche à tout atypique, il est un pionnier de la… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Étienne-jules marey — vers 1850 Étienne Jules Marey, né à Beaune le 5 mars 1830 et mort à Paris le 15 mai 1904, est un physiologiste français. Considéré à son époque comme un touche à tout atypique, il est un pionnier de la photographi …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Étienne-Jules Marey — around 1850. Étienne Jules Marey (5 March 1830, Beaune, Côte d Or – 21 May 1904, Paris) was a French scientist and chronophotographer. His work was significant in the development of cardiology, physical instrumentation, aviation, cinematography… …   Wikipedia

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